Facial ageing is a multifactorial process that affects different interconnected structures. Here is a brief summary on the effects of aging on different facial structures:
Bone: Skeletal dimensions and bony skeletal support change. Bone resorption and remodelling (age 40 onwards) leads to biometric volume loss, hence loss of support to overlying structures.
Muscle: Atrophy of muscles and augmentation of permanent muscle tone leads to permanent alterations in physical appearance over time.
Fat: Redistribution, accumulation and atrophy of superficial fat pads lead to facial volume loss. Fat pad volume changes induce contour and shape deformities on the face.
Skin: Thinner, drier and less elastic. Skin is more likely to wrinkle or sag due to a reduction in collagen.